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Entries from September 30th, 2007


19 Comments · Measurement instruments

Once the researcher has decided how primary data is to be collected, the next task is to obtain a sample of respondents that is representative of the target population.

The main sampling techniques can be divided into probability and non-probability methods.

In probability sampling each element of the population has a chance of being selected. In such cases it is possible to compute sampling variation and project the results to the entire population.

In the case of non-probability sampling, the chance of selection of a particular population element is known and, strictly speaking, results cannot be projected to the entire population.

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Building models

35 Comments · models

Leeflang and Wittink (2000) provide a checklist of topics that a researcher should consider prior to building a model.

? Every model builder must evaluate whether the use of a model can improve managerial decision-making.

? The builder should define the intended use of the model (what is it good for?).

? The complexity, completeness and integration ought to be assessed.

? How can the necessary data be obtained? Are they accessible and available in the appropriate level of aggregation?

? The structure of the model must be easy to understand and appear straightforward to implement.

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Verbal and statistical models

22 Comments · models

Verbal model: description of a market launch
The word-of-mouth spread of knowledge about a product is an example of a simple verbal model.

When a product or service is launched, sales often start slowly until some people (early adopters) become aware of the product.

They buy it and start using it. If they are satisfied with the product, they recommend it to family members and to friends via word-of-mouth communication.

This leads to an acceleration of sales growth, and the producer (importer) is encouraged to place advertisements in various media. At some point, the market potential is approached and growth slows down.

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Marketing Models and Properties of a Good Model

31 Comments · models

According to one of the pioneers of marketing models, John Little (1970):
? good models are hard to find;
? good parameterization is even harder;
? managers do not understand models;
? most models are incomplete.

There can be little doubt that Little’s statement is of even greater relevance if we deal with models that aim to describe and analyze international or cross-cultural marketing problems.

Types of marketing models and their purpose
Models of consumer behaviour and media planning usually assume that consumers are exposed to advertising in a variety of print media, broadcast programming and TV channels.

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Sampling techniques

480 Comments · Measurement instruments

Questionnaire design is key to both qualitative and quantitative research. In the former, even small samples can be investigated using semi-structured (or in other cases, unstructured) questionnaires to elicit answers and to probe interviewees’ responses.

The questionnaire in quantitative research is used as a survey instrument with larger samples, normally containing structured questions for ease of coding and analysis.

A questionnaire is a data collection instrument, formally setting out the way in which research questions should be asked.

Even simple questions need proper wording and organization to produce accurate information.

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Changes in the domestic and international market

101 Comments · Marketing Research

Boundaries between domestic and international markets are becoming less relevant as firms increase their profiles abroad.

In Europe, North America and Asia, international competition has intensified, precipitating the following changes in global marketing research.

Changes in the international market focus
In the 1970s and 1980s the country was typically used as the unit of analysis for research design, for developing the sampling frame, and data collection.

Owing to economic, political, linguistic and cultural barriers, the country was the focal point of entry decisions.

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