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Entries from October 25th, 2007

Questionnaire design

659 Comments · Measurement instruments

Questionnaire design is key to both qualitative and quantitative research. In the former, even small samples can be investigated using semi-structured (or in other cases, unstructured) questionnaires to elicit answers and to probe interviewees’ responses.

The questionnaire in quantitative research is used as a survey instrument with larger samples, normally containing structured questions for ease of coding and analysis.

A questionnaire is a data collection instrument, formally setting out the way in which research questions should be asked.

Even simple questions need proper wording and organization to produce accurate information.

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How to make survey design

323 Comments · Measurement instruments

Every research problem is unique in some way, and care must be taken to select the most appropriate set of approaches for the problem at hand.

Nevertheless, although every research problem may seem unique, there are usually enough similarities among such problems to allow decisions to be made in advance, as to the best plan to use to resolve the problem and there are some basic survey designs that can be matched to given problems.

There are three basic ways of obtaining primary data in marketing research: survey, observation, and experiment.

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Choice of scales in international marketing research

22 Comments · Measurement instruments

A challenge facing cross-cultural researchers is the development of scales that measure a construct in multiple countries.

In addition to all the issues related to achieving comparability and equivalence in the instrument, there is the underlying issue of whether the construct exists and can be measured using the same or similar instrument in more than one culture.

Most published research dealing with cross-cultural scales reports the results where a scale that has been developed in one country, typically the US, is applied in other countries.

Few, if any, modifications are made to the original scale, with the exception of dropping items that do not exhibit high levels of reliability.

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Measurement instruments: Reliability and validity in marketing

978 Comments · Measurement instruments

Whenever items or individuals are measured, error is likely. Unintentional mistakes may
occur when something under investigation is measured and the true response is sought but not revealed.

This is common in research. Since virtually all research efforts are flawed. Marketing researchers must routinely measure the accuracy of their information.

Researchers must determine measurement error, which is the difference between the information sought and the information actually obtained in the measurement process.

Measurement includes true, accurate information plus some degree of error. We can summarize this idea as follows:

Measurement results = True measurement + Measurement error

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How to measurement and scaling in marketing

64 Comments · Marketing Research

Once a marketing researcher has a clear understanding of what he or she wishes to understand in a group of target respondents, the concepts of scaling and measurement should be considered.

These concepts are very important in developing questionnaires or instruments of measurement that will fulfill the research objectives in the most accurate manner.

The term scaling refers to procedures for attempting to determine quantitative measures of subjective and sometimes abstract concepts.

Accurate measurement of constructs is essential in making decisions, and this article addresses the importance of measuring customers’ attitudes and behaviors, and other marketplace phenomena.

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How to use the qualitative research methods

35 Comments · Marketing Research

The purpose of qualitative research is to find out what is going on in a person’s mind. Although focus group interviews are the most frequently used qualitative research methods, they are not the only type of non-structured research.

Frequently, decision makers need current information that can be obtained by directly asking people questions, i.e. making use of in-depth interviews.

Other popular methods include grounded theory, protocol analysis, various projective techniques, and physiological measurements.

Individual, in-depth interviews
Individual in-depth interviews are non-directive or semi-structured interviews in which the respondent is encouraged to talk about the subject rather than to answer “yes” or “no” to specific questions.

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Main things to remember when working with focus groups

35 Comments · Marketing Research

Focus group interviews represent an array of techniques and methods that have been used by social scientists for several decades.

Originally termed the “focused interview,” the method was quickly adopted in marketing research as a means of product testing and has become the predominant qualitative method in this field.

A focus group can be described as a research technique that collects data through group interaction on a topic or topics.

The distinguishing feature of focus groups is the explicit use of the group interaction to produce data and insights that might be less accessible without the interaction found in a group.

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Observational and tracking methods

33 Comments · Marketing Research

Observation is the process of watching actual human behaviour, phenomena or events and recording them as they occur.

Like many marketing research tools, modem observational research has its roots in anthropology and sociology.

The technique began as participant observation around the turn of the century when anthropologists began collecting data first-hand.

Observation does not often appear as a research methodology in the marketing literature: this may be because it is sometimes hard to quantify the outcomes of observational research at the outset, or because it is considered time-consuming, or sometimes, it may be difficult to generalize the findings.

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What to consider with online and other secondary data sources

39 Comments · Marketing Research

Secondary data is information that has been gathered by someone other than the researcher and/or for some other purpose than the project at hand.

This article is concerned with externally available secondary sources, for which the specification, collection, and recording of the data are done by someone other than the user.

This becomes evident when census data are used to analyze market demand. We will also look at secondary data that are collected especially for a set of information users with a common need.

Such data are both purpose-specific and expensive, but still cheaper than each user gathering the information independently.

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Consequences of deglobalization vs. globalization for brands

39 Comments · Marketing Research

The growing variety of market needs forces managers of global brands to run locally adapted strategies.

One such company, which is famous for practising globalization at its best, is running a more and more locally oriented strategy.

Nearly everyone thinks that Coca-Cola offers its soft drink Coke in an identical quality worldwide, but this is not true.

For example, in the Arab world, consumers prefer soft drinks to be sweeter than in Europe.

So Coca-Cola had to adapt its products for Arab countries. In a similar vein, Coca-Cola of Germany no longer implements the global marketing strategy developed by its headquarters.

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